从文化人类学角度看食物农业学发展及其社会意义

作者:加州大学洛杉矶分校人类学终身教授

从文化人类学角度看食物农业学发展及其社会意义Anthropology: Understanding Cultures through Agriculture of Food


适合专业或兴趣方向 Interests:

人类学,社会学,农业学


学习目标 Learning Objective

理解人类学、农业学与文化的核心概念

探索食物的研究范围是如影响全球化世界中的文化与民族关系的形成

通过食物供给与战争爆发的周期性,加深对族群和跨族群文化交流的理解

集中训练学生复杂问题的表达能力及逻辑思维能力



项目收获 Program Outcome

· 教授官方的个性化定制推荐信

· 科研项目成绩单

· 学术评估报告

· 独立第一作者全文发表的EI/CPCI索引的国际会议期刊



项目介绍 Program Description

       本课题的主要目标是培养学生对于文化异同的批判性意识。在授课过程中,学生应该经常问自己:什么是文化? 我们通过阅读、电影、讲座和课堂讨论来研究文化,农业与食物之间的关系。 大家来自不同的国家和地区,每个人都有不同的文化背景,这就形成了我们独特的观点,并无正确和错误之分。进而,学生应该从文化人类学的角度来思考农业与食物之间特定的关联。



导师介绍 Instructor Introduction

本教授任加州大学洛杉矶分校人类学终身教授。

2020年,荣获玛丽·居里学者项目的资助(欧盟资助个人科研的最高奖项之一)

曾获得欧洲研究委员会科研拨款

担任美国国家地理学会研究和探索委员会研究员

荣获加州大学洛杉矶分校优秀教授奖

夏威夷大学人类学博士和硕士学位

     


任职学校 University / College

     加利福尼亚大学洛杉矶分校(University of California, Los Angeles,简称 UCLA),位于美国洛杉矶,是世界顶尖的公立研究型大学,环太平洋大学联盟和国际公立大学论坛成员,公立常春藤名校,多年来蝉联美国申请人数最多的大学,也是录取难度最高的大学之一。加利福尼亚大学洛杉矶分校被《华尔街日报》《泰晤士高等教育》等多家权威报刊评为美国第一公立大学,2018 年《福布斯》最具价值大学排名全美第一,2018 年 QS 毕业生就业力排名世界第二。2020-21 年度,UCLA 位列软科世界大学学术排名第 13 位 ,U.S. News 世界大学排名第 14 位,THE 世界大学排名第15 位,QS 美国大学排名第 6 位,U.S. News 美国公立大学排名第 1 位。



项目大纲 Program Outline






Lecture 1 :




Objective:Food Studies: Culture, History, and Archaeology

学习目标:食品研究;- 文化、历史及考古学


Description: Classifying Subsistence; Origins of Crop domesticationin a global view ;History of research on agricultural origins;Primary centers and secondary regions

描述:分类生存;全球范围内的农作物驯化起源;农业起源的研究历史;主要中心和次要地区。


Readings:

Acabado, S.B., J.M. Koller, C-h. Liu, A. Lauer, A.Farahani, G. BarrettoTesoro, J.A. Martin, and J.A. Peterson. 2019.

The Short History ofthe Ifugao Rice Terraces: A Local Response to the Spanish Conquest.Journal of Field Archaeology 44(3): 195–214.Acabado, S.B. 2018.

Zones of Refuge: Resisting conquest in thenorthern Philippine highlands through environmental practice.Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 52:180-195, DOI:10.1016/j.jaa.2018.05.005

   





    Lecture 2:

Objective:Introduction to Economic Anthropology

学习目标:经济人类学概论


Description:Principles of an Economic Anthropology描述: 经济人类学原理


Readings:

Hann, C. 2018. Economic anthropology.;In TheInternational Encyclopedia of Anthropology, edited by H. Callan,pp. 1-16. John Wiley and Sons.Bourdieu, P. 2010.

Principles of an Economic Anthropology. In;Thehandbook of economic sociology, edited by Neil J. Smelser andRichard Swedberg, pp. 75-89. Princeton: Princeton University Press


Lecture 3:



Objective I :The Meaning of Food

学习目标I :食物的意义


Description:The Anthropology of Food analyzes its object in aninterdisciplinary manner, since interactions happen socially,ecologically and biologically, provided that human groupsconstitute themselves by their way of life and by techniquesrelated to the environment. After all, the difference betweeneating, a social activity, and nurturing, a biological activity isperceptible where food is crucial to human survival, as vitalnecessity. Therefore, it is shaped by culture and an outcome of thesocial structure in a given age being able to change over time. Thebiological and social aspects become a product of Anthropology offood and food habits are the main themes in social research.

描述:食物人类学以跨学科的方式分析其对象,因为相互作用发生在社会、生态和生物学上,假设人类群体通过他们的生活方式和与环境相关的技术构成自己。 毕竟,进食 (一种社会活动) 和养育 (一种生物活动) 之间的区别是显而易见的,食物对人类的生存至关重要,是人类生产及生活至关重要的必需品。 因此,它是由文化塑造的,是一个特定时代的社会结构能够随时间而变化的结果。 生物和社会方面的产物成为人类学的食物和饮食习惯是社会研究的主要主题之一。


Readings:

Abarca, M.E. and J.R. Colby, 2016. Food memoriesseasoning the narratives of our lives. Food and Foodways 24(1-2):1-8.Caldwell, M. 2006. Tasting the worlds of yesterday and today:culinary tourism and nostalgia foods in post-Soviet Russia (Fastfood/Slow food).Yano, C. 2007. Side dish kitchens: Japanese American delicatessensand the culture of nostalgia (The Restaurants Book).


Objective II :Gender Identity

学习目标II:性别认同


Description:We examine the significance of food-centeredactivities to gender relations and the construction of genderedidentities across cultures.;We;consider;how each gender'srelationship to food may facilitate mutual respect or producegender hierarchy. This relationship is considered through twocentral questions: How does control of food production,distribution, and consumption contribute to men's and women's powerand social position? How does food symbolically connote malenessand femaleness and establish the social value of men and women?Other issues discussed include;men's and women's;attitudes towardstheir bodies and the legitimacy of their appetites.

描述: 我们将研究以食物为中心的活动对性别关系和跨文化性别身份的构建的重要性;同时考虑每个性别与食物的关系如何促进相互尊重或产生性别的等级?这种关系可以通过两个核心观点来考虑: 对于粮食生产、分配和消费的控制如何有助于男性和女性的权力和社会地位? 食物是如何象征性地暗示男性和女性,并确立男性和女性的社会价值的? 最后教授也将讨论其他问题包括男性和女性对自己身体的态度以及他们食欲的合法性。


Readings:

Metzo, K. 2009. The social and gendered lives of vodkain rural Siberia (Food and Everyday life in the post-socialistworld).Christiensen, P. 2012. Real men don’t hold their liquor: thecomplexity of drunkenness and sobriety in a Tokyo bar. SocialScience Japan Journal 15(2): 239-254.Jennifer Grady, J. ;and M. Ventresca, 2014. “Officially a vegannow”: on meat and renaissance masculinity in pro football. Foodand Foodways 22(4): 300-321.


Lecture 4:




Objective:Global Foodways

学习目标:全球“美食之路”


Description:We Feed the World Capitalism and global foodways inmaking places, tastes, and diets from 1500 to 2015. Our globalizedfood system has been centuries in the making, and the structures ofpower and flows of goods reveals the enduring legacies of slavery,imperialism, and colonialism that bring us our daily meals today

描述:从1500年到2015年,资本主义和全球饮食方式在制造场所、口味和饮食方面都有着重大的影响。 我们的全球化食品体系已经酝酿了几个世纪,而权力结构和商品流动揭示了奴隶制、帝国主义和殖民主义的持久遗产,这些遗产给我们今天的日常饮食带来了很大的改变。


Readings:

Benson, P. and E. F. Fischer. 2007. "Broccoli anddesire.";Antipode;39, no. 5: 800-820.

Mintz, S.W. 1997. "Time, sugar, and sweetness.";Food and culture: A;Reader, 357-369.

Yan, Y. 2012. "Food safety and social risk in contemporaryChina.";The Journal of Asian Studies;71(3): 705-729.

Richardson, J. 2009. Recipe for America: why our food system is broken and what we can do to fix it (Introduction; CH1 From eaterto activist)


Lecture 5:



Objective I :Local Foodways

学习目标 I :当地“美食之路”


Description:Anthropologists, folklorists, sociologists,historians, and foodscholars often use the term foodways to describe;the study of whywe eat what we eat and what it means. The term, therefore, looks atfood consumption on a deeper than concrete level and includes, yetgoes, beyond sustenance, recipes, and/or taste.

描述:人类学家,民俗学家,社会学家,历史学家,还有食物学家等相关学者们经常使用Foodways这个术语来描述我们为什么饮食及它意味着什么。 因此,这个词从更深层的层面来看待食物消费,包括但不限于食物、食谱/味道。


Readings:

Yan, Y. 2005. Of hamburger and social space: consumingMcDonald’s in Beijing (the politics of food and eating).Marte, L. 2011. Afro-Diasporic seasonings: food routes andDominican place-making in New York City. Food, Culture and Society14(2): 181-204.Jung, Y. 2009. From canned food to canny consumers: culturalcompetence in the age of mechanical production (Food and everydaylife in the post-Socialist world).


Objective II :Making and Returning to Traditional Food

学习目标 II :传统食物的制作,回潮与传承


Description: Slow Food;envisions a world in which all people canaccess and enjoy food that is good for them, good for those whogrow it and good for the planet. In anthropology, the Slow FoodMovement links local, sustainable, and fair food movements in newways.; It is a critique of the “wasteconomy”, Petrini’soverarching term for conventional, globalizing food systems andcommodification processes that judge food only by price withoutconsidering other (labor, environmental, biodiversity)characteristics and more humane, “right to food” dimensions ofvalue: “It is incredible how a system designed to reducediversity, increase productivity, and distribute efficiently fromcentralized structures manages to “lose food” at every turn…allthis while a billion people are suffering from hunger andmalnutrition”.

描述:“慢食计划” 设想了一个世界,在这个世界里,所有人都能获得并享用对他们、对种植这些食物的人、对地球都有好处的食物。 在人类学中,“慢食运动”以一种新的方式将地方、可持续和公平的食物运动联系起来。 这是对“浪费经济”的批评。“浪费经济”是彼得里尼对传统的、全球化的粮食系统和商品化过程的总术语,这些过程只根据价格来判断粮食,而不考虑其他(劳动力、环境、生物多样性)特征和更人道的“食物权”价值维度: “令人难以置信的是,一个旨在减少多样性、提高生产率和通过集中结构进行有效分配的系统,却在每一个环节都在“失去粮食”……与此同时,还有10亿人在忍受饥饿和营养不良”。


Lecture 6:



Summary, and Q&A

最终成果展示、课题答疑





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